The flora of Armenia is rich and special and it is distinguished by the expressed diversity of plant communities and species, which is a result of the geographically favorable position of the area. Below are the species that contain the roots "armen" and "hajastan" (which mean Armenia) in their names, as well as other Armenian toponyms.
Prunus armeniaca or the Armenian plum is the most commonly cultivated apricot species. Seeds of this apricot were discovered in Armenia during archaeological excavations of Garni Temple and Shengavit Settlement, having a history of 6000 years. The wood of the apricot tree is used for making woodcarvings, such as duduk, which is a popular wind instrument in Armenia and is also called “apricot pipe”. The "colour of apricot" is one of the three horizontal bands of the national flag of Armenia.
Lilium armenum is a plant species that belongs to the order Liliales. It is near threatened species. It is distributed on rather large area in the North Armenia, and at present there are no real threats to species’ existence. However the species is very ornamental and is collected for bouquets. It may lead to an increase of the threat. The extent of occurrence is less than 20000 km2, the area of occupancy is less than 2000 km2, the number of locations is 10. It was included in the first edition of the Red Data Book of Armenia under Category 3: Reducing species.
Ribes armenum is a species of flowering plants from the family Grossulariaceae. It is an endemic species of Armenia. It was included in the first edition of the Red Data Book of Armenia under Category 2: Rare species.
Hypericum armenum is a plant species currently classified as a Critically endangered species. The plant has 5 petals which are yellow with 1 row of black glands at margins. One of the settlements is situated in "Dilijan" National Park. It was included in the first edition of the Red Data Book of Armenia under Category 4: Indefinite species.
Aethionema armenum is a species of flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae. It is a dwarf evergreen subshrub used in rock gardens. The plant has glaucous-green leaves and pink flowers. A perennial 10-20cm in height with many semi-erect or ascending, unbranched stems. Leaves linear-oblong, 5-15mm long, blue-grey.
Cousinia armena is a species from the family Asteraceae currently classified as Endangered species. It has thin stems and pale purple flowers.
Tragopogon armeniacus is an annual or biennial plant from the family Asteraceae. The species faces a decline of the extent of occurrence and the area of occupancy caused by the intensity of agricultural activity. It was not included in the first edition of the Red Data Book of Armenia.
Smyrniopsis armena is a large yellowish-green perennial herb from the family Apiaceae. It is an endemic species of Armenia. It was included in the first edition of the Red Data Book of Armenia under Category 1: Endangered species.
Crambe armena is a perennial glabrous herb from the family Brassicaceae. It is endemic species of South Transcaucasia. The area of distribution is severely fragmented. The species faces a threat of extinction caused by economical activity. It was not included in the first edition of the Red Data Book of Armenia.
Oxytropis armeniaca is a stemless perennial plant from the family Fabaceae. It is endemic species of Armenia. It was not included in the first edition of the Red Data Book of Armenia. Grows in upper and sub–alpine belts.
Althaea armeniaca is a plant species from the family Malvaceae. It is also known as the marshmallow plant. Traditionally, it is a medicinal plant against cough. It is a tall, perennial herb with villous stems. The leaves are deeply divided into three ovate-lanceolate lobes, the central lobe being longer than the others. The leaf margin is toothed. The leaf surface has a villous indumentum of stellate hairs. The flowers are borne on multi-flowered peduncles. The red petals are about 15 mm long. The mericarps have a rough surface and a pilose indumentum of stellate hairs.
Leontice armeniaca is a perennial herb from the family of Berberidaceae currently classified as endangered species. Perennial glaucous has terete leaves, yellow flowers and oval fruits. Grows in a lower mountain belt, at the altitudes of 900–1200 meters above sea level, in semi–deserts, on dry stony saline slopes. Flowering from April to May, fruiting from May to June.
Pyrus hajastana is a tree of flowering plants from the family Rosaceae. It is one of the 13th endemic species of the genus Pyrus of Armenia. The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a source of materials. Species in this genus generally prefer a good well-drained loam in full sun. They usually grow well in heavy clay soils. They tolerate light shade but do not fruit so well in such a position, tolerate atmospheric pollution, excessive moisture and a range of soil types so long as they are moderately fertile. Established plants are generally drought tolerant.
Crataegus zangezura is a plant species that grows in Zangezur, “Shikahogh” State Reserve. Main characteristics include shrubs up to 2 m, with thin, glabrous or slightly pilose, brownish-grey shoots. The leaves are glabrous, on the fruiting branches elongate-obovate, with narrowly cuneate base. The inflorescence is few-flowered. The fruits are small, 0.8–1 mm long, shortly elliptic, blackish–purple. The habitats of the species include the middle mountain belt, forest edges, shibliak, rocky slopes of river gorges.
Triticum araraticum is a plant species considered as a close relative of the cultivated wheat species. This annual plant is a waxy film, the stems erect, 70–110 cm long. It has a broad spike, distichous side 6–13 mm broad: rachis easily dividing into articules. Spikelets are with 2 caryopses. The main habitats are the middle mountain belt, steppes, dry stony slopes, fields, irrigation canals. This species is experiencing loss and degradation of habitats caused by the expansion of arable lands, amelioration and global climatic change.
Amygdalus nairica is a plant species endemic to South Transcaucasia. It is diffuse, branched, with very spiny branches shrub, 1–2 m. Leaves are semicoriaceous, glabrous, oblong-lanceolate, smooth-edged or crenate-serrate. The fruits ovate-oval, velutine, compressed, with small mucro. The main habitats include lower and middle mountain belts, dry stony slopes, screes, phryganoid vegetation, arid open forests. The species is currently experiencing loss and degradation of habitats caused by the intensity of the mining industry and the development of lands for arable purposes.
Sorbus hajastana is a big shrub of flowering plants from the family Rosaceae. It is a relict species and is included in the Armenian Red Data Book as Vulnerable species. The main characteristics include a big shrub, elliptic, entire leaves cuneate narrowed at apex and base, coriaceous, glabrous, shiny, from below densely appressed snow-white pubescent, grandidentate at margins. Fruits are dark red, with numerous light lenticels. The habitats of this species include middle to sub-alpine belt, rocky slopes, forests, sub-alpine tall grasses on tree-line.
Rhaponticoides hajastana is a perennial herb from the family Asteraceae. It is an endemic species of Armenia and is included in the Armenian Red Data Book as Endangered species. It has a vertical root, erect stems, broadly ovate, large capitula very impressed at base. Involucral phyllaries characterize with a broad membranous appendage, 2-4 mm long. Marginal flowers are very large, 46-50 mm long, yellow. Achenes are light, oblong, in upper part transverse rugose. Pappus are whitish or brownish-grey, large, 9-11 mm long. The main habitats of this species include middle and upper mountain belts, dry stony slopes, steppes.
Onobrychis hajastana is a perennial plant from the family Fabaceae and is currently included in the Armenian Red Data Book as an endangered species. Stems are 25-70 cm, leaflets 4-8 paired, narrowly linear, 10-30 x 1-2 mm. Peduncles together with inflorescence 7–25 cm long; inflorescence elongating after flowering. Grows in lower and middle mountain belts, at the altitude of 800-1850 meters above sea level, in the steppes, among phryganoid vegetation. Flowering from June to July, fruiting from July to August.
Phelipanche hajastanica is a new species of parasitic plant from the family Orobanchaceae. It was first described in 2017.
Allium armenum is an ornamental plant from the family Amaryllidaceae. Its purple-pink bell-shaped flowers are produced in a lax hemisphere with each petal with a central dark stripe. The flower stalks are long and nod slightly due to the weight of the flowers, which creates a most pleasing visual effect. Allium armenum grows best in well-drained sunny spots.
Cotoneaster armena is an ornamental shrub of flowering plants from the family Rosaceae. It is an endemic species of Armenia whose branches are used to make baskets and walking sticks.
Cephalaria armeniaca is a flowering plant in the family Dipsacaceae which is an endemic species of Armenia. They are annual or perennial herbaceous plants growing to 0.8–2 m tall.
Astragalus hajastanus is a flowering plant from the family Fabaceae which is an endemic species of Armenia.